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青岛翻译公司整理:中国将 建造世界上最大的烟雾箱以解决污染问题

Blue skies finally returned to the capital yesterday. The government is putting more resources into fighting air pollution

图:蓝天昨 天终于回到首都。政府正 投入更多的资源对抗空气污染

The central government has approved the construction of a facility that creates artificial smog to allow scientists to devise new ways to reduce air pollution.
Plans for the so-called "smog chamber" were apparently fast-tracked as the country continued to choke under heavy smog. The proposed Huairou complex will rival the world's largest atmospheric simulation facility, the European Photoreactor, Euphore.Professor He Hong, a researcher with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the lead scientist of the project, said that when completed the Huairou smog chamber would be the largest in the world. The Chinese chamber will be able to use 600 cubic metres of polluted air for tests - exceeding Euphore's capacity by 50 per cent.

中央政 府已批准建设设施,创建人 工烟雾让科学家们想出新的方法来减少空气污染。
“烟雾箱”计划显 然是个快速的跟踪这个国家令人窒息的沉重烟雾的方法。计划中 的怀柔烟雾箱将是全球最大的大气模拟设备,欧洲Photoreactor Euphore的竞争对手。
中国科 学院研究员和项目的首席科学家,hehong教授说,当完成 了的怀柔烟雾箱将是世界上最大的。中国将能够使用600立方米 进行空气污染测试——能力超过Euphore 50%。

Professor He stressed this was not for bragging rights, but for science. "Size matters. The larger a smog chamber, the smaller the 'wall effect'," he said, referring to the negative impact of a limited physical enclosure on simulation and data quality.
The smog chamber, a project long hoped for by scientists, features two hemispherical vessels that can create conditions similar to smog.
The central government agreed to grant the project more than five hectares of land - about the size of seven soccer fields - in the Huairou district of Beijing, and 500 million yuan (HK$633 million) in funding.
Construction is scheduled to begin in 2016 but will probably start earlier as the government is losing patience in the battle against smog and is pushing scientists for results.

he教授强调这不是炫耀,但对于科学。他说“规模很重要。烟雾室越大,“墙效应”越小,”墙效应 指的是物理外壳对模拟和数据质量的负面影响。
烟雾箱,项目科学家们希望,两个半 球形容器可以创造类似于烟雾的条件。
中央政 府同意为项目给予超过5公顷的土地——在北京 怀柔区大约七个足球场大小,5亿元(6.33亿港元)的资助。施工计划于2016年开始,但也许会提早开始,因为政 府是在对烟雾的战斗中失去耐心,科学家 们也会努力推动。

Europe's Euphore photoreactor

图:欧洲的Euphore photoeactor烟雾箱

"We are under a lot of pressure to provide immediate answers and solutions, but scientific research takes time, and some sophisticated problems cannot be solved overnight," He said. "I hope people can understand and give us some time."
Scientists are still scratching their heads about the causes of smog in China. There is a lack of precise understanding of the chemical reactions in the atmosphere that give rise to most of the fine particulates in smog. Many research teams have focused on emissions, leading to government measures such as limiting the number of cars on the road or shutting down factories, but others say the effect of such restrictions is negligible.
The theories and mathematical models developed by scientists in the last few decades to explain smog in Europe and the United States turned out to be inadequate when applied to China's cities.

“我们的压力很大,被要求 立即提供答案和解决方案,但科学研究需要时间,一些复 杂的问题不是一朝一夕的事,”HE教授说。“我希望人们可以理解,给我们一些时间。”
对于中国的烟雾,科学家 们仍然为其原因摸不着头脑。他们对 大气中的化学反应,产生最 细颗粒的烟雾缺少精确的分析。许多研 究小组专注于排放,政府采 取措施包括限制上路的汽车数量或关闭工厂,但其他 人说这些限制的影响是微乎其微的。
科学家 由过去几十年里在欧洲和美国的烟雾理论和数学模型解释应用到中国城市。

In the Huairou facility, by pumping different mixtures of pollutants into each of the vessels, the researchers will be able to study their chemical reactions, under sunlight, in detail.
The twin chamber design will allow scientists to make side-by-side comparisons of test results.

在怀柔设施中,每个部 位注入不同污染物的混合物,研究人 员可以仔细的在阳光下研究他们的化学反应。
双室的 设计将使科学家们对测试结果进行比较。

He said the biggest challenge of the project was not building the chamber, but equipping it with state-of-the-art research devices.
To fully monitor and record the sophisticated physical or chemical reactions in the chamber requires much advanced scientific equipment that needs to be purchased or developed.

HE说项目 的最大的挑战不是建设烟雾箱,而是装 备最先进的研究设备。
全面监 测和记录的复杂的物理或化学反应需要先进的科学设备,这需要购买或开发。

The project had been approved by the National Development and Reform Commission. With the project backed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the smog chamber's launch could be brought forward.
Professor Hu Min, who runs a smaller smog chamber at Peking University's College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, said the scientific community was eagerly awaiting the completion of the Huairou facility. But, she cautioned, the "greater the size, the greater the challenges". It was too early to speculate on the chamber's performance as most of the technical details had not been made public, Hu said.

这个项 目被国家发改委批准,由中国 科学院对烟雾箱项目提供技术支持。HUMin教授,在北京 大学环境科学与工程学院有一个较小的烟雾箱。她说,科学界 热切期待着怀柔设施的完成。但她警告说,“体积越大,挑战越大”。推测箱 的性能还为时过早,因为大 部分的技术细节尚未公开。

The smog chamber is only part of the Chinese government's bid to solve the smog problem by investing huge sums into research and technology.
Numerous scientists have been mobilised nationwide, especially those from top research institutes and universities in smog-hit areas such as Beijing and Shanghai, to look into the issue and come up with solutions. Research teams have been set up, with some larger teams receiving hundreds of millions of yuan in funding.
Some of the scientists have never been involved in an air pollution research before.

烟雾箱 只是中国政府解决烟雾问题投入巨资研究和技术的一部分。全国许 多科学家正在动员,调查这一问题,并提出解决方案,特别是 在烟雾严重的北京、上海等 地区的顶级研究机构和大学。特别研 究小组已经成立,一些更 大规模的团队获得数亿元资金。
但是一 些科学家们是第一次参与空气污染的研究。

Chinese Academy of Sciences president Bai Chunli (left) inspects a radio telescope site in Shanghai.

图:中科院院长白春礼(左)在上海 检查射电望远镜。

Chemist and nanoscientist Dr Bai Chunli, president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said in a meeting earlier this month that the entire academy had been instructed by the State Council to urgently deal with the smog and make a "historic contribution" to the war on air pollution.
The scientists, coming from various fields, were urged to take tackling smog as seriously as "an earthquake", according to a report on the CAS website.

中国科 学院院长化学和纳米科学家白春礼博士,在本月 早些时候的一次会议上说,整个学 院已经接到国务院紧急处理烟雾的指示,这是“历史性”的对空气污染战争。中科院 网站上的一份报告显示,来自各 个领域的科学家,正在被 敦促寻找应对严重的烟雾“地震”的方法。

One physicist from CAS said he had never seen such urgency about a scientific study before. "We have been told to drop whatever we have in hand and work on the smog issue, as if a meteorite is about to strike the earth," he said, declining to be named.
"The budget is so big that money will never be a problem," the scientist said. "If an issue can be solved by money, it is relatively easy. Unfortunately, it does not apply to smog."

一位来 自中科院的物理学家说他从来没有见过这样的紧迫的科学研究。“我们被 告无论现在在做什么都要放弃,而要投 入到烟雾问题上,这好像 有一颗陨石即将袭击地球,”他说,但拒绝透露姓名。“预算很大,钱不是问题,”科学家说。“如果可 以通过钱来解决一个问题,它是相对容易的。不幸的是,它并不适用于烟雾。”

整理:中国将 建造世界上最大的烟雾箱以解决污染问题



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